3rd GROUP PRESENTATION Ikhfi Imaniah, Sri Haryati, Ika INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL

There is a belief abroad that children and some adults learn a second language spontaneously, without making a deliberate effort to learn the mechanics of the new language–just the way they learned their first language. On the other hand, most adults would seem to need guidance, tutoring, teaching, and concentrated attention on the form of the language rather than merely on its substance (meaning, communicative value). Not all linguists and teachers agree with this premise. One thing, though, is certain: there is to date no strongly entrenched theory to explain how people learn a second language. The only demonstrable and empirical fact is that different people seem to learn differently.

Monitor Theory.

Monitor theory, as defined by Krashen, states that adult learners have two systems to enable them to develop their language ability: subconscious acquisition and conscious learning, with acquisition being more important. Conscious learning is only available as a “monitor”, i.e. learners can consciously ‘edit’ their ‘output’ (utterances or written work) to make themselves more fluent or comprehensible, based on what they have formally learned about the second language.

Monitor theory comprises five hypotheses about second language acquisition (SLA) developed by Stephen Krashen: the acquisition-learning hypothesis; the monitor hypothesis; the natural order hypothesis; the input hypothesis; and the affective filter hypothesis.

Gardner’s Educational Model

• Socio-Psychological model works as a base for Socio-Educational model.
• Stress is on socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the contexts
• According to Gardner:

Second languages unlike virtually any other curriculum topic, must be viewed as a central social psychological phenomenon. The rationale underlying this view is that most of other school subjects involve learning elements of the student’s own cultural heritage…the acquisition of knowledge and habits which are already part of the makeup of the culture with which the student identifies. Such is not the case with second languages, however

Social Milieu

– Particular cultural context
– Affects the development of attitudinal or motivational characteristics
– It determines the learner’s beliefs about language + culture. Monolingual, Britain + US. Bilingual,   Canada.
– Suggests the extent to which these characteristics will influence language learning, in different contexts
– Also involves cultural expectations of learner’s language community
– Influence child’s relative degree of achievement in SLA
-Cultural Beliefs+ individual differences          influence the performance
– [Learning a second language is difficult]

Individual difference Variables

Intelligence refers to a general class of abilities, which account for individual differences in the context to which learners understand the nature of any task to be learned

how well and how quickly….

Language Aptitude refers to the capacity to learn languages, and is typically assessed in terms of student’s verbal abilities
Motivation refers to those affective characteristics which include the desire the learner has for achieving a goal, and the amount of effort he expends in this direction and the effect.
Anxiety refers to the reactions aroused in specific situations involving second language. However, situational anxiety should not be confused with general anxiety.

Opportunities for target language use:

1.Access to NS
• In class
• Out of the class
1. Opportunities for communication language use Opportunities for negotiation

Spolsky’s Model

He presumes that there is a restriction inherent in second language learning which permits a concentration not on the universality that is the concern of first language acquisition study, but on the explanation of individual difference which is the focus of second language learning research.

Four features summarized as follows:

1.Combining in a single theory all aspects of second language learning
2.A restriction to specific domain of second language learning and focus on individual differences
3.A spirit eclecticism seems to underlie Spolsky’s model
4.Recognizes the importance and existence of ‘social context’ as an important domain affecting learning outcomes.

There are two points that note from Spolsky’s model of language learning and its underlying features:

1.Spolsky’s (1989) model appears to be promising, as a parameter for identifying variations in learner variables.
2.The second point relates to the fourth feature underlying Spolsky’s model. The feature of eclecticism clearly implies that his model can be modified and adjust according to learning conditions (context)

Language Aptitude : language learning aptitude refers to the “prediction of how well, relative to other individuals, an individual can learn a foreign language in a given amount of time and under given conditions.

Previous Knowledge : plays an important role in a further process of language learning, in terms of language learning achievement.

Familiarity with Computers : reflects a learner’s experience in using computers in using a computer.

Interaction with Native Speakers of English : it can enhance language learning achievement.

Language Used for Interaction with the Community :

No matter what language they use more frequently, a question that may arise is “Does the frequency of using the target language (English) affect language learning outcomes?”

Summary

Despite the fact that no all studies on the relationship betw
een individual-related variables and language learning achievement have related similar findings, the majority of studies indicate that these variables significantly affect language learning achievement.

Some other variables have been included such as attitudes toward computers, familiarity with computers, and time spent learning English via self-access computer mediated language learning program are on account of the consideration that these variables are relevant to the learning treatment set up in this study, namely CALL environment.

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CD COMPARISON IN LANGUAGE TEACHING By.IKA KARTIKA

CD COMPARISON

IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

Lecturer         : Hartoyo, Ph.D

Writer              : Ika Kartika

Evaluation of ready- made computerized Language Programs (CD)

1. CD 1         : VOCABULARY

a.    The Strenghts :

–       The use of CD-ROOM can improve student’s acquisition of vocabulary, because program can stimulate the interaction between students and computer.

–       The program is very interesting, as there are variations in teaching process.

–       The students are not bored, however, the learning techniques are suitable and compatible with students need.

–       In order to be more effective, the program should be renovated in accordance with the situation.

–       The picture and the color are good.

b.    The Weaknesses

–       Menu options are difficult for beginners

–       The CD must be installed

–       The use of computer media is expensive

 

2. CD 2  : ENGLISH WORDS

a.    Strengths

–       It is easily understood by elementary students

–       It is very interesting

–       The program is interactive, because the activities consist of game and situational learning where students are involved in English activity

–       Students can understand the sound and utterance

–       The lay out of the screen is good.

 

b.    The weaknesses :

–       It is difficult to understand the pictures

 

3. CD 3  : LEARNING ENGLISH

a.    Strengths

–       The pictures is very interesting

–       It is very educational for students

–       The pronunciation is clear enough

–       It is understandable, because it is easily digested

–       It is suitable for elementary students

–       The menu can be chosen in random

–       It develop vocabularies and grammar

b.    The weaknesses

–       It is difficult to open the program

–       There is frequent errors on the CD

4. CD 4  : SPEAKING ENGLISH

a.    Strengths

–       The tropic is simple

–       It develop speaking skills, because it can stimulate oral interaction

–       It stimulate interaction

–       It is very interesting

–       The illustrations are good

–       It suitable for junior high school students

b.    The weaknesses

–       It is rather complicated

CONCLUSION

The 4 CDs are very useful and effective for teaching and learning. They can help students and teachers in English learning class. CD is popular to use for learning. Students can choose the many instantly through the CD. It means that media is an important role to achieve a target of teaching and learning English. It gives a huge chance for the students to practice about all of the competence in English includes, speaking, listening, reading and writing.

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COMPUTER – ASSITED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)

A. What is computer-assisted language learning (CALL)

Computer-Assisted language learning (CALL) is a form of computer-based learning which carries two important features : individualized learning  and bidirectional learning. It is not a method. CALL-materials are materials for learning. The focus of call is learning, and not teaching. CALL materials are used in teaching a to facilitate the language learning process. It is a form of student – centered learning materials, which promote self-paced accelerated learning. CALL is not a software application, but either courseware that is designed specifically for language learning for a specific group of learners.

CALL originates from  CAI and was invented in 1960s. computer-Assisted instruction was first viewed as an aid for teachers. The philosophy of CALL put a strong emphasis on student-centered lesson that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and / or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features : bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classroom. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.

The designed of CALL lessons generally takes into consideration principles of language pedagogy, which may be derived from learning theories (behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist) and second language learning such as Krashen’s Monitor Theory.Others may see CALL as an approach to teaching and learning foreign languages whereby the computer-based resources such as the internet are used to present, reinforce and assess material to be learned. CALL can be made independent of the internet. It can stand alone for example in a CDROM format. Depending on its

designed and objectives, it may include a substantial interactive element especially when CALL is integrated in web-based format. It is in the area of industrialization of teaching that is resigning now. The traditional on interpersonal communication between teacher and student is gone. However, the industrialized teaching is able to offer teachers with the opportunity  of sourcing from computer internet rather than being faced with the problem of materials. It may include the search for the investigation of applications in language teaching and learning.

CALL Is used to :

–       Experimental learning

–       Motivation

–       Enhance student achievement

–       Authentic materials for study

–       Greater interaction

–       Individualization from a single source of information

–       Global understanding

A.   Strengths of computer-Assisted Language Learning

1.    Versatility and capacity to augment human capacities

The use of the computer as a tool was its original function and this roles continues  to be a mayor field and outside it. The most common instrumental uses of the computer are the word processor, the database, and the spreadsheet. In language teaching, tools have included email, conferencing programs, monolingual, bilingual  and multi lingual dictionaries.

The fundamental qualities of a tool largely determine the strengths of the computer in this role, the tool is designed to assist the human, so that the tasks may be accomplished more efficiently and more effectively with aid of the tool than without it. The human is in quite neutral in terms of how it is used.

2.    Interactivity

Interactivity is a crucial strengths of the new technology the computer is in interactive first of all, by virtue of the fact that the user can gain control over learning and therefore become an active participant in the learning process interactivity of the computer makes it especially suited for implementing learned-centered teaching methods.

Multimedia should be considered truly revolutionary for language pedagogy the new technology the new technology really shines in its presentation of form and meaning. The sound and graphic capabilities of the computer not only have improved presentations, they have also made possible what conventional textbook can not . digitized audio has made possible the modeling of pronunciation. The teaching of character’s stroke order and direction has taken a giant step forward from the cumbersome representation on paper to the animated demonstrations formerly achievable only with a human instruction. Still or animated graphics for illustrating meanings and speech production may both educate and entertain.

Random and rapid access allow the instant retrieval of vocabulary and grammar explanation. It also contributes to easy learner control and recycling of materials.

The consistency and patience of the computer is not only crucial for learning by association and repeated exposure. Paradoxically, without the possible ill – effects of are over – bearing human teacher, the patient and interactive computer can provide a very user-friendly and learner-centered learning environment.

In addition to the above-mentioned general characteristics, digital speech technology in particular has enabled the graphic display of the relevant acoustic properties of speech such as amplitude, pitch level and frequency composition.

B.   Weaknesses of computer-assisted Language Learning

1.    Neutrality  and offers the users no quittance of context

Computer can equally be used for the wrong purpose, or in the wrong way, as for the right one, in comparison with the tutor, the tools is non-directive whilst the tutor is directive, the latter offering some form of guidance of determining structure within which interaction can take place. They does not have methodology attached to it as  does the tutor, and so as with any tool, the students need to learn how to use effectively.

2.    The Program

Some educators and syllabus must be very critical of software program that they consider using in their teaching context. A program may look very good the first few times it is viewed, but dynamic, visual qualities are not sufficient to assure that it will be effective in teaching the target materials. Users may quickly tire of the spinning characters, lights and whistles. The content  and methodology of the program has to be the principal rationals in choosing a CALL program.

C. Advantages of CALL

1.    Motivation

Generally speaking, the use of technology inside or outside the classroom tends to make the classroom more interesting. However, certain design issues affect just how interesting the particular tool creates motivation. One way a program or activity can promote motivation in students by personalizing information, for example by integrating the student’s name of familiar context as part of the program or task. Others include having animate objects on the screen, providing practice activities that incorporate challenges and curiosity and providing a context (real world-or fantasy) that is not directly language-oriented.

For example, a study comparing students who used “corner stone” (a language arts development program) showed a significant increase in learning (Compared to students not using the program) between two classes arts. This because corner stone incorporate personalized information and challenging and imaginative exercises in a fantasy context. Also, using a variety of multimedia components in one program of course has been shown to increase student interest and motivation.

One quantifiable benefit to increase motivation is that students tend to spend more time on tasks when on the computer. More time is frequently citied as a factor in achievement.

2.    Adapting learning to the student

Computer can give a new role of teaching materials without computers,  students can not really influence the linear progression of the class content but computers can adapt to the student. Adapting to the students usually means that the students controls the pace of the learning but also means that students can make choices in what and how to learn, skipping unnecessary items or doing remedial work on difficult on difficult concepts. Such control makes students feel more competent in their learning students tends to prefer exercise where they have control over content, such as branching series, adventure, puzzles, or logic problems. With these, the computer has the role of providing attractive context for the use of language rather than directly providing the language the student needs.

3.    Authenticity

“Authenticity” in language learning means the opportunity to interact in one or more of the four skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) by using of producing texts meant for an audience in the target language, not the classroom. With real communication. Also, students learn more about culture such an environment in networked computer environments, students have a conscious feeling of being members of a real community.

In situations where all are learners of a foreign language, there is also a felling of quality, in these situations students feel less stressed and more confident in a language learning situation, in part because surface errors do not matter so much . this works best with synchronous chats as there is immediate feedback but email exchanges have been shown to provide most of the same benefits in motivation and students affect.

4.    Critical Thinking skills

Use of computer technology in class room is generally reported to improve self-concept and mastery of basic skills, more student-centered learning and engagement in the learning process, more active processing resulting in higher-order thinking skills and better recalls, gain confidence in directing their own learning. This is true for both language and non language classroom.s

5.    Offers freedom for users.

CALL offers freedom for users to choose any topic information available within the package. The table of contents denotes all topics available which can be selected by simply clicking on the box labeled for a particular topic. For example in this CALL tutorial package, the material encompasses the English sentences which are collaborated in several more specific topic denoted in the table of contents.

6.    Computer and its attached language learning programs could provide second language learners. Were independence from classroom and allowing learner;s the option to work on their learning. Material at anytime of the day, once implemented, it can be expected that the cost for computer technology is considerably lower than for face to face classroom teaching, and when used in conjunction with traditional second language classroom study, students can study more independently, heaving the teacher more time to concern  trade effort on those sport of second language teaching that are still word or impossible by the computer, such as pronunciation,  work on spoken dialogue, training, essay, writing and pronunciation (Roger, 1996).

7.    Can provided instruction, feed back and testing in grammar, vocabulary, writing, pronunciation and other dimensions of language and culture learning. In this case, the teacher will only be a facilitator. He or she has been mush helped by a computer. The teacher can easily control the activities of learning being done by his students. The programs that are installed and connected to the server, a computer can also provide reading access to written audio and visual materials relate to the language and culture being studied by the students. A study conducted  by Amstrong (2003) shows that learning achievement can be increased up to 50 percent when a teaching learning process utilizes CALL.

8.    Because of CALL’S flexibility of time, it can allow the student to determine what particular topics and how long they want to leaven. Hence, students who miss the class because some reasons, for instance illness, still have  an opportunity to learn the particular topic taught in the CALL program (Hartoyo, 2006 : 31). It can stimulate and individual interactive learning program, so both ”fast and slow” learners can take the benefits from it.

9.    CALL can give a new role the teaching materials. Out of the content of CALL, teaching materials are really passive. Although the students said or did could influence in any deep sense the linear progression of the contents in CALL, materials adapt themselves to the requirement of the individual student’s; that is they become interactive (Peter, 1993 : 5)

D.   Disadvantages of CALL

1.    Although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer technology still has its limitations and disadvantages. Gips. Dimmatia and Gips (2004) indicated that the first disadvantages of computer and its attached language learning program is that they will increase educational coats and harm the equity of education. When computers become a basic requirement for students to purchase low budget schools and income students usually cannot afford a computer . it will cause unfair educational conditions for those poor schools and students. On the other hand, expensive hardware and software also becomes the big obligations for schools and parents.

2.    It is necessary that both teachers and learners should basic technology knowledge before they apply computer technology to assist second language teaching and learning. No students can utilize computer If she or he lacks training in the uses of computer technology. Unfortunately, most teachers today do not  have sufficient technological training to guide their students exploring computer and its assisted language learning programs. Therefore, the benefits of computer technology for those students who are not familiar with computer are in existent (Roblyer, 2003).

3.    The software of computer assisted language learning programs is still imperfect. Current computer technology mainly deals with reading, listening and writing skill. Event though some speaking programs have been developed recently, their functions are stills limited. Warschsauer (2004) pointed out that a program shoul iedeally be able to understand a user’s “spoken” input evaluate it just for correctness but also or “ appropriateness” it should be able to diagnose a student’s problem with pronunciation, syntax or usage and the intelligently decide among  a range of options.

4.    Computer can not handle unepected situations. Seconds language learner’s learning situations are various and ever changing. Due to the limitations of computer’s artificial intelligence, computer technology is unable to deal with learners unexpectec learning problems and response do. The reasons for the computer’s in ability to interact effectively can be traced back to fundamental difference in the way humans and computers utilized information (Dent, 2001) Blin (1994) also expressed that computer technology with that degree of intelligience do not exist, and are not expected to exist for quite a long time in  a word, today’s computer technology and its attached language learning programs are not yet intelligence enough to be truly interactive. People still need to put effort in developing and improving computer technology in order to assist second language learner.

5.    The computer is considered to be much less handy, it is much different from traditional book that are small enough to be carried around and studied wherever and whenever students wish, on a train, on a bus, at home, in the middle of the night, or in a dentist’s waiting room (Anzel et al, 1992).

6.    At current time most of students do not process their own computer at home, therefore, they just used computers available in their schools in which the opening hours are very restricted.

7.    Working long hours with computers also can make students’ eyes strain and tiring. It may, sometimes, account for the eye irritation and pain.

8.    CALL sometimes decreases the interaction among students or what we call social aspect of schooling.

9.    CALL is costly enough for the programmers or teachers. A lot of funds have to be provided to buy some equipment, design programs, and its and for its maintenance . the school with limited budget will find some obstacles  in funding the CALL program. To create a program of CALL must have a least forty computers for one class capacity of course. Lots of money needed for building computer laboratory, a lot of money is also needed to train teachers, especially English teachers, since there are only a few of English teachers who can operate computers as well as its new software.

10. Although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer technology, still has its limitations and disadvantages. Gip, Dr. Mattia, Gips(2004). Indicated that the first disadvantages of computer and its attached language learning programs. Is that they will increase educational cost and harm the equity of education. When computer become a basic requirement for student to purchase, low budget schools and low-income student usually cannot afford a computer. It wil cause unfair educational conditions for those poor schools and student. On the other hand, expensive hardware and software also becomes the big obligations for schools and parents.

11. It is necessary that both teachers and learners should have basic technology knowledge before they apply computer technology to assists second language teaching and learning  no students can utilize computer  technology to assist second language teaching and learning. No students can utilize computer if he or she lacks training in the use of computer technology. Unfortunately, most teacher today do not have sufficient technology training to guide their students exploring computer and its assisted language learning programs. Therefore the benefits of computer technology for those students who are not familiar with computer are in existent. (Roblyer, 2003).

12. The software of computer assisted language learning programs is still imperfect. Current computer technology mainly deals with reading, listening, and writing, skills. Even though some speaking program have been developed recently, their functions are still limited.

By : IKA KARTIKA

REFERENCES

Computer Assisted Language Learning : an Introduction Warshcau Mark. Ratrieved 2008-04-11. Language Learning and Technology 2. Pp. 45-60.

“CALL (Computer Assisted Language  Learning) Guide to Good Practice 3”. Davies Graham. Retrivied 2007-12-01.

Mitchel, R, F. Myles (1998) Second Language Learning Theorist, London : Arnold.

“Introduction to multimedia CALL.” Retrieved 2008-07-11.

“Managing a Multimedia Language Centre”. Retrieved 2008-07-11.

Ravichandran, T (2000) Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the Perspective of the interactive approach” Advantages and Apprechension.

Esteras, S.R. 2003, English for Computer User, Infotech: Third Edition, Cambriedge University.

Kiliackaya, Ferit. 2007. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning on Turkish Learners Achievements on the TOEFL, Exam.

Hartoyo, 2006, Individual Differences in Computer-Assisted Language Learning, p.27.

Blin, F (1999), (CALL and the Developments of Leaner Autonomy). In. R. Debski and M Levy (eds). World CALL : Global Perspectives on Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Lisse : Swets and Zeitlinger, pp :133-147.

Gip, A. Dimmatia, P, & Gips, J (2004) The Effect of Assistive  technology on educational costs : Two Case studies. In. K. Miesnberger J. Klauses, W. Zagler, D. Burger (eds). Computers Helping People With Special Needs, Springer, 2004, pp. 206-213.

Dent. C (2001). Students : Classifications V. Categorization Retrieved June 28, 2006, From http://www.burningchrome.com:8000/- cdent/fiaarts/does/1005018884:23962.html

Roblyer, M. (2003). Integrating Educational Technology Into Teaching, Colombus, Ohio : Persons Education.

Anzel, Betina and A. H. Jucker (1992) Learning Linguistics with Computer.

Individual Differences in CALL by Hartoyo, 2006: 31.

Amstrong, Thomas (2003). Setiap Anak Cerdas : Panduan Membantu Anak Belajar.

Peter, Scrimshaw (1993). Language, Classroom, and Computer, London, British.

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THE ROLE OF INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN DELIVERING HIGHER ADUCATION By : Ika Kartika

ABSTRACT

ICT has given its contribution in education sector at this moment as a new era. It is also become an instrumental to help expand access to education, strength then the relevance of education to increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by helping make teaching and learning into and active process connected to real life. Due to its easy accessibility this means of education has become very popular all over world.

1. Introduction

Education is the mainstay of a nation. A multitude of people of least developed countries are for beyond the rich of higher education. One of the main reason may be the poor economic condition of those countries. Perhaps this is the crucial challenge to be addressed by those nations for overall development where education may be on the top list. Information, Communication and Technology also play vital role in the growth as well as producing and offering goods and services at relatively reduced cost. ICT can process information and have big success in providing service at reduced cost, to people’s door still. ICT has the same to do for making the higher education available to all classes of people through the country at a lower cost. As a result, on one hand people will have the access  right on higher education and on the other hand will gain the necessary knowledge, skills and experiences to serve the nation and prosper accordingly.

1.1. Definition of terms

ICT : ICT students for Information and Communication Technology. According to  Blurton, ICT is defined as “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information”. Technologies includes in ICT are : radio and television (broadcasting technology), telephone, computer and Internet.

Its popularity has increased dramatically, simply because it’s very easy to use, colorful  , and rich in content, “web is a series of interconnected documents stored on computer sites or websites” (Dennis P. Curtin at al : 2002).

E-Learning : Commonly associated with higher education and corporate training, e-learning encompasses learning at all levels, both formal and non-formal, that  uses an information network the internet, an internet (LAN) or externet (WAN) – whether  wholly or in part, for course delivery, interaction and / or facilitation. Others also term it as online learning.

E-Payment : making payment electronically.

E-Payment is a subside of an e-commerce transaction to include electronic payment for buying and selling goods or services offered through the internet. Generally, we think of electronic payment as referring to online transactions on the internet, there are actually many forms of electronic payments – credit card, Digital check, etc.

E-Business : E-Business means interaction with business partners, where interaction is enabled by information technology. E-Business is changing the way we do business. For example : communicating with partners via e-mail, e-brochure, webpage, etc.

Group discussion : Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is among the popular Internet service people mostly use for live chatting. Group of people with common interest can exchange views / opinions with each other instantly through internet. Description of the Internet Technologies required to support higher education via ICTs (WWW. Video Conference, Tele – Conference, Mobile – Conference, CD, Database, Word Processor, Internet, etc).

E-Modules : Modules written are converted and stored into digital version into a computer using word processor accessible by the user through Internet.

Trust and Security : Existence of six main component of a commerce site suggest  trustworthiness as 1) Seals of Approval, 2). Brand, 3). Navigation, 4). Fulfillment, 5). Presentation, and 6). Technology. As for security there are also six issues to look into : 1). Integrity, 2). No Repudiation (Prevention Against any one party from reneging on an agreement after the fact. 3). Authenticity (authentication of data source), 4). Confidentiality (Protection against authorized data disclosure), 5). Privacy (Provision of data control and disclosure, and 6). Availability (Prevention against data delays or removal).

Teleconferencing : refers to “interactive electronic communication among people located at two or more different places, “there are for types of teleconferencing based on the nature and extent of interactivity and the sophistication of the technology : 1). Audio conferencing, 2). Audio graphic conferencing, 3). Video conferencing, and 4). Web-based conferencing.

Audio conferencing : involves the live (real-time) exchange of voice messages over a telephone network. When low-brand width text  and still mages such a graphs, diagrams or pictures can also be exchanged along with voice messages, then this type of conferencing is called audio-graphics. Non-moving visuals are added using a computer keyboard or by drawing / writing on a graphics tablet or whiteboard.

Video conferencing : allows the exchange not just of voice and graphics, but also of moving images video conferencing technology does not use telephone lines but either a satellite link or television network.

Web-based conferencing : as the name implies involves the transmission of text, and graphic, audio and visual media via the internet. It requires the use of a computer with a browser and communication can both synchronous and ansynchronous.

Open and distance learning : open and distance learning is defined by the commonwealth of learning as “a way of providing learning apportunities that is characterized by the separation of teacher and learner in time or place, or both time and place, learning that is certified in some way by an institution or agency; the use of a variety of media, including print and electronic : two – way communications that allows learners and tutor to interact; the possibility of occasional face – to – face meetings ; and a specialized division of labor in the production and de in the production and delivery of course” (www.col. Org/ODL.Intro/IntroODL.htm)

1. The Objectives of this study are :

a)    To look at ICT based higher education in other countries.

b)    To investigate the current of ICT – based higher education in Western Countries

c)    To know the use of ICT-based higher education for students in Asia.

2. Literature Review

ICT is used as productivity  tables or enrichment resource. This generally means that they support the traditional teacher – led mode of instruction in subject areas as math, language, social studies or science. Transformative application of ICT refers to non-traditional emerging uses where exposure to and development of ICT fundamentally change the way education is conceived and delivered to students. ICT’s are enablers that optimize student – centered pedagogical methods. They are used to develop broad, generic skills such as problem solving, independent and collaborative learning and communication, they lead to more individualized instruction, less didactic delivery, and a emphasis on problem – solving and cooperative learning situations. Teachers assume the role of facilitators and skills developers. They help the students achieve a greater understanding of information by making us of technologies.

In the past educational institutions have provided little choice for students in terms of the method and manner in which programs have been delivered students have typically been forced to accept what has been delivered and institutions have tended to be quite staid and traditional in terms of the delivery of their programs. The use of ICT provides many options and choices, and many institutions are now creating competitive edges for themselves through the choices they are offering students. These choices extend from when students can choose to learn to where they learn (Oliver, 2002). Another way in which emerging ICTs are contributing significantly on the content of education curricula stems from the ways in which ICTs are dominating so much contemporary life and work. Already there has emerged a need for educational institutions to ensure that graduates are  able to display appropriate levels of information literacy, “the capacity to identify and issued and then to identify, locate and evaluate relevant information in order to engage with it or to solve a problem a rising from it”. (Mc.Causland Wache & Berck, 1999).

The advent of ICTs as learning technologies has coincided with a growing awareness and recognition of alternative theories for learning. The theories of learning that hold the greatest sift today are those based on constructive principles (eg. Duffy & Cunningham, 1966).

ICT – Based education in Western Countries :

In recent times factors have emerged which have strengthened and encouraged moves to adapt ICTs into classroom and learning settings. There are a good number of Western Universities / Institutions offering ICT – based higher education successfully with quality for decades.

ICT – based education in Asia :

Following the succesfull use of ICTs in the western countries, current scenario in Asia countries reveals the increased acceptance of ICTs in delivering higher education.

ICT-based education in Indonesia :

Since its establishement in 1984 as the first distance and open learning institution in Indonesia, the Universitas Terbuka (Indonesia open learning University) has made great strides in making higher education available to Indonesian, having served more than 400.000 students nation wide in its 14 years of existence. The mandate of University Terbuka, however, is not only to expand educational opportunity but also to “improve the quality of education and make it more relevant to national development needs”.  In fact, it addresses issues of quality in instruction and it has recently introduced the use of internet and a combination of facsimile and internet technologies for students.

3. Analysis

ICT based higher education is popular to those who want flexibility in the learning process. Beside it is quite adequate, it is also favorable for experts.

ICT is a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non formal. ICT can help access to higher education and conform to the needs of the learners.

However, not all students, teachers and others agree with implementation of ICT-based higher education. The quality of higher education can not also be ensured as life as face to face conventional education system.

1. Summary and Recommendation

The rigid use of textbook material and its high complexity and great diversity of content does not motivate students, as it imposes great difficulties on them in the understanding of concepts and how to relate the topic being students prefer the flexibility in the learning process through ICT-based education.

In areas with continuous change of technological content, as with information and technologies, the problem is the difficulty in selecting and organizing the knowledge to be taught. In terms of technical support, experts, and course material ICT-based education system is expected to enhance its capability to satisfy the user groups. On the one hand, new knowledge has to be added to the curriculum constantly, and at the same time any other hand, content has to be organized and ordered, relating very concept to others, which is not a trivial taste because of their number and how often they change.

The ICT – based education system is holistic approach where a very high level integrity and moral standard is required by instructors, ICT experts, students and other stakeholders. To be effective everyone concerned with the process has to upgrade themselves continuously to keep pace with the ever changing environment.

References

Maria Mercedes T. Rodrigo (2003), Tradition or Information ? an evaluation of ICTs in Metro Manila Schools, Information Technology for Development, IOS Press, P.95-122.

Denny P Curtin at al. Information Technology – The Breaking Wave, Tata Mc Graw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 2002, Page-4

The Commonwealth of Learning, “An Introduction to open and Distance Learning” : Available from http://www.col.org/ODL.Intro/IntroODL.htm;accessed 14 August 2002.

Oliver R. (2000). Creating Meaningful Contexts for Learning in Web-Based Settings. Proceedings of Open Learning, 2000. (pp 53-62). Brisbone : Learning Network, Queensland.

Duffy, T. & Cunningham, D. (1996). Constructivisim :

Implications for the design and delivery of instruction, Handbook of research for educational telecommunications and technology (pp. 170-198). New York : MacMillan.

McCausland, H., Wache, D & Berk, M (1999)

Computer Literacy; its implications and outcomes. A case study from the Flexible Learning Centre University of South Australia.

Victoria L. Tinio (2003) ICT in Education.

Http://www.sribed.com/doc/2999093/ICT-in-Education-by-Victoria–L-Tinio,Viwied on viwied on 25 June 2009.

http://www/open.ac.uk.viewed on 25 June 2009

http://epayment.com.viewed on 25 June 2009

http://www.bou.eu.bd/home.html.viewed on June 2009

Blurton, C (2002).  New Direction of ICT – USE in Education. http://www.unesco.org/education/eduprog/lwf/dl/edict.pdf;viewed 7 Augst

Alam S. (2009) Technology Based Literacy Education Through Distance Mode in Bangladesh ; Problems and Prospects, http://www.col.org/pcf2/papers/alam.pdf,accessed on 27 June

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COMPUTER – ASSITED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)

A.   What is computer-assisted language learning (CALL)

Computer-Assisted language learning (CALL) is a form of computer-based learning which carries two important features : individualized learning  and bidirectional learning. It is not a method. CALL-materials are materials for learning. The focus of call is learning, and not teaching. CALL materials are used in teaching a to facilitate the language learning process. It is a form of student – centered learning materials, which promote self-paced accelerated learning. CALL is not a software application, but either courseware that is designed specifically for language learning for a specific group of learners.

CALL originates from  CAI and was invented in 1960s. computer-Assisted instruction was first viewed as an aid for teachers. The philosophy of CALL put a strong emphasis on student-centered lesson that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and / or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features : bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classroom. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.

The designed of CALL lessons generally takes into consideration principles of language pedagogy, which may be derived from learning theories (behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist) and second language learning such as Krashen’s Monitor Theory.

Others may see CALL as an approach to teaching and learning foreign languages whereby the computer-based resources such as the internet are used to present, reinforce and assess material to be learned. CALL can be made independent of the internet. It can stand alone for example in a CDROM format. Depending on its designed and objectives, it may include a substantial interactive element especially when CALL is integrated in web-based format. It is in the area of industrialization of teaching that is resigning now. The traditional on interpersonal communication between teacher and student is gone. However, the industrialized teaching is able to offer teachers with the opportunity  of sourcing from computer internet rather than being faced with the problem of materials. It may include the search for the investigation of applications in language teaching and learning.

 

CALL Is used to :

–       Experimental learning

–       Motivation

–       Enhance student achievement

–       Authentic materials for study

–       Greater interaction

–       Individualization from a single source of information

–       Global understanding

 

B.   Strengths of computer-Assisted Language Learning

1.    Versatility and capacity to augment human capacities

The use of the computer as a tool was its original function and this roles continues  to be a mayor field and outside it. The most common instrumental uses of the computer are the word processor, the database, and the spreadsheet. In language teaching, tools have included email, conferencing programs, monolingual, bilingual  and multi lingual dictionaries.

The fundamental qualities of a tool largely determine the strengths of the computer in this role, the tool is designed to assist the human, so that the tasks may be accomplished more efficiently and more effectively with aid of the tool than without it. The human is in quite neutral in terms of how it is used.

2.    Interactivity

Interactivity is a crucial strengths of the new technology the computer is in interactive first of all, by virtue of the fact that the user can gain control over learning and therefore become an active participant in the learning process interactivity of the computer makes it especially suited for implementing learned-centered teaching methods.

Multimedia should be considered truly revolutionary for language pedagogy the new technology the new technology really shines in its presentation of form and meaning. The sound and graphic capabilities of the computer not only have improved presentations, they have also made possible what conventional textbook can not . digitized audio has made possible the modeling of pronunciation. The teaching of character’s stroke order and direction has taken a giant step forward from the cumbersome representation on paper to the animated demonstrations formerly achievable only with a human instruction. Still or animated graphics for illustrating meanings and speech production may both educate and entertain.

Random and rapid access allow the instant retrieval of vocabulary and grammar explanation. It also contributes to easy learner control and recycling of materials.

The consistency and patience of the computer is not only crucial for learning by association and repeated exposure. Paradoxically, without the possible ill – effects of are over – bearing human teacher, the patient and interactive computer can provide a very user-friendly and learner-centered learning environment.

In addition to the above-mentioned general characteristics, digital speech technology in particular has enabled the graphic display of the relevant acoustic properties of speech such as amplitude, pitch level and frequency composition.

 

C.   Weaknesses of computer-assisted Language Learning

1.    Neutrality  and offers the users no quittance of context

Computer can equally be used for the wrong purpose, or in the wrong way, as for the right one, in comparison with the tutor, the tools is non-directive whilst the tutor is directive, the latter offering some form of guidance of determining structure within which interaction can take place. They does not have methodology attached to it as  does the tutor, and so as with any tool, the students need to learn how to use effectively.

 

2.    The Program

Some educators and syllabus must be very critical of software program that they consider using in their teaching context. A program may look very good the first few times it is viewed, but dynamic, visual qualities are not sufficient to assure that it will be effective in teaching the target materials. Users may quickly tire of the spinning characters, lights and whistles. The content  and methodology of the program has to be the principal rationals in choosing a CALL program.

 

D. Advantages of CALL

1.    Motivation

Generally speaking, the use of technology inside or outside the classroom tends to make the classroom more interesting. However, certain design issues affect just how interesting the particular tool creates motivation. One way a program or activity can promote motivation in students by personalizing information, for example by integrating the student’s name of familiar context as part of the program or task. Others include having animate objects on the screen, providing practice activities that incorporate challenges and curiosity and providing a context (real world-or fantasy) that is not directly language-oriented.

For example, a study comparing students who used “corner stone” (a language arts development program) showed a significant increase in learning (Compared to students not using the program) between two classes arts. This because corner stone incorporate personalized information and challenging and imaginative exercises in a fantasy context. Also, using a variety of multimedia components in one program of course has been shown to increase student interest and motivation.

One quantifiable benefit to increase motivation is that students tend to spend more time on tasks when on the computer. More time is frequently citied as a factor in achievement.

2.    Adapting learning to the student

Computer can give a new role of teaching materials without computers,  students can not really influence the linear progression of the class content but computers can adapt to the student. Adapting to the students usually means that the students controls the pace of the learning but also means that students can make choices in what and how to learn, skipping unnecessary items or doing remedial work on difficult on difficult concepts. Such control makes students feel more competent in their learning students tends to prefer exercise where they have control over content, such as branching series, adventure, puzzles, or logic problems. With these, the computer has the role of providing attractive context for the use of language rather than directly providing the language the student needs.

3.    Authenticity

“Authenticity” in language learning means the opportunity to interact in one or more of the four skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) by using of producing texts meant for an audience in the target language, not the classroom. With real communication. Also, students learn more about culture such an environment in networked computer environments, students have a conscious feeling of being members of a real community.

In situations where all are learners of a foreign language, there is also a felling of quality, in these situations students feel less stressed and more confident in a language learning situation, in part because surface errors do not matter so much . this works best with synchronous chats as there is immediate feedback but email exchanges have been shown to provide most of the same benefits in motivation and students affect.

4.    Critical Thinking skills

Use of computer technology in class room is generally reported to improve self-concept and mastery of basic skills, more student-centered learning and engagement in the learning process, more active processing resulting in higher-order thinking skills and better recalls, gain confidence in directing their own learning. This is true for both language and non language classroom.s

5.    Offers freedom for users.

CALL offers freedom for users to choose any topic information available within the package. The table of contents denotes all topics available which can be selected by simply clicking on the box labeled for a particular topic. For example in this CALL tutorial package, the material encompasses the English sentences which are collaborated in several more specific topic denoted in the table of contents.

6.    Computer and its attached language learning programs could provide second language learners. Were independence from classroom and allowing learner;s the option to work on their learning. Material at anytime of the day, once implemented, it can be expected that the cost for computer technology is considerably lower than for face to face classroom teaching, and when used in conjunction with traditional second language classroom study, students can study more independently, heaving the teacher more time to concern  trade effort on those sport of second language teaching that are still word or impossible by the computer, such as pronunciation,  work on spoken dialogue, training, essay, writing and pronunciation (Roger, 1996).

7.    Can provided instruction, feed back and testing in grammar, vocabulary, writing, pronunciation and other dimensions of language and culture learning. In this case, the teacher will only be a facilitator. He or she has been mush helped by a computer. The teacher can easily control the activities of learning being done by his students. The programs that are installed and connected to the server, a computer can also provide reading access to written audio and visual materials relate to the language and culture being studied by the students. A study conducted  by Amstrong (2003) shows that learning achievement can be increased up to 50 percent when a teaching learning process utilizes CALL.

8.    Because of CALL’S flexibility of time, it can allow the student to determine what particular topics and how long they want to leaven. Hence, students who miss the class because some reasons, for instance illness, still have  an opportunity to learn the particular topic taught in the CALL program (Hartoyo, 2006 : 31). It can stimulate and individual interactive learning program, so both ”fast and slow” learners can take the benefits from it.

9.    CALL can give a new role the teaching materials. Out of the content of CALL, teaching materials are really passive. Although the students said or did could influence in any deep sense the linear progression of the contents in CALL, materials adapt themselves to the requirement of the individual student’s; that is they become interactive (Peter, 1993 : 5)

 

E.   Disadvantages of CALL

1.    Although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer technology still has its limitations and disadvantages. Gips. Dimmatia and Gips (2004) indicated that the first disadvantages of computer and its attached language learning program is that they will increase educational coats and harm the equity of education. When computers become a basic requirement for students to purchase low budget schools and income students usually cannot afford a computer . it will cause unfair educational conditions for those poor schools and students. On the other hand, expensive hardware and software also becomes the big obligations for schools and parents.

2.    It is necessary that both teachers and learners should basic technology knowledge before they apply computer technology to assist second language teaching and learning. No students can utilize computer If she or he lacks training in the uses of computer technology. Unfortunately, most teachers today do not  have sufficient technological training to guide their students exploring computer and its assisted language learning programs. Therefore, the benefits of computer technology for those students who are not familiar with computer are in existent (Roblyer, 2003).

3.    The software of computer assisted language learning programs is still imperfect. Current computer technology mainly deals with reading, listening and writing skill. Event though some speaking programs have been developed recently, their functions are stills limited. Warschsauer (2004) pointed out that a program shoul iedeally be able to understand a user’s “spoken” input evaluate it just for correctness but also or “ appropriateness” it should be able to diagnose a student’s problem with pronunciation, syntax or usage and the intelligently decide among  a range of options.

4.    Computer can not handle unepected situations. Seconds language learner’s learning situations are various and ever changing. Due to the limitations of computer’s artificial intelligence, computer technology is unable to deal with learners unexpectec learning problems and response do. The reasons for the computer’s in ability to interact effectively can be traced back to fundamental difference in the way humans and computers utilized information (Dent, 2001) Blin (1994) also expressed that computer technology with that degree of intelligience do not exist, and are not expected to exist for quite a long time in  a word, today’s computer technology and its attached language learning programs are not yet intelligence enough to be truly interactive. People still need to put effort in developing and improving computer technology in order to assist second language learner.

5.    The computer is considered to be much less handy, it is much different from traditional book that are small enough to be carried around and studied wherever and whenever students wish, on a train, on a bus, at home, in the middle of the night, or in a dentist’s waiting room (Anzel et al, 1992).

6.    At current time most of students do not process their own computer at home, therefore, they just used computers available in their schools in which the opening hours are very restricted.

7.    Working long hours with computers also can make students’ eyes strain and tiring. It may, sometimes, account for the eye irritation and pain.

8.    CALL sometimes decreases the interaction among students or what we call social aspect of schooling.

9.    CALL is costly enough for the programmers or teachers. A lot of funds have to be provided to buy some equipment, design programs, and its and for its maintenance . the school with limited budget will find some obstacles  in funding the CALL program. To create a program of CALL must have a least forty computers for one class capacity of course. Lots of money needed for building computer laboratory, a lot of money is also needed to train teachers, especially English teachers, since there are only a few of English teachers who can operate computers as well as its new software.

10. Although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer technology, still has its limitations and disadvantages. Gip, Dr. Mattia, Gips(2004). Indicated that the first disadvantages of computer and its attached language learning programs. Is that they will increase educational cost and harm the equity of education. When computer become a basic requirement for student to purchase, low budget schools and low-income student usually cannot afford a computer. It wil cause unfair educational conditions for those poor schools and student. On the other hand, expensive hardware and software also becomes the big obligations for schools and parents.

11. It is necessary that both teachers and learners should have basic technology knowledge before they apply computer technology to assists second language teaching and learning  no students can utilize computer  technology to assist second language teaching and learning. No students can utilize computer if he or she lacks training in the use of computer technology. Unfortunately, most teacher today do not have sufficient technology training to guide their students exploring computer and its assisted language learning programs. Therefore the benefits of computer technology for those students who are not familiar with computer are in existent. (Roblyer, 2003).

12. The software of computer assisted language learning programs is still imperfect. Current computer technology mainly deals with reading, listening, and writing, skills. Even though some speaking program have been developed recently, their functions are still limited.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Computer Assisted Language Learning : an Introduction Warshcau Mark. Ratrieved 2008-04-11. Language Learning and Technology 2. Pp. 45-60.

“CALL (Computer Assisted Language  Learning) Guide to Good Practice 3”. Davies Graham. Retrivied 2007-12-01.

Mitchel, R, F. Myles (1998) Second Language Learning Theorist, London : Arnold.

“Introduction to multimedia CALL.” Retrieved 2008-07-11.

“Managing a Multimedia Language Centre”. Retrieved 2008-07-11.

Ravichandran, T (2000) Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the Perspective of the interactive approach” Advantages and Apprechension.

Esteras, S.R. 2003, English for Computer User, Infotech: Third Edition, Cambriedge University.

Kiliackaya, Ferit. 2007. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning on Turkish Learners Achievements on the TOEFL, Exam.

Hartoyo, 2006, Individual Differences in Computer-Assisted Language Learning, p.27.

Blin, F (1999), (CALL and the Developments of Leaner Autonomy). In. R. Debski and M Levy (eds). World CALL : Global Perspectives on Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Lisse : Swets and Zeitlinger, pp :133-147.

Gip, A. Dimmatia, P, & Gips, J (2004) The Effect of Assistive  technology on educational costs : Two Case studies. In. K. Miesnberger J. Klauses, W. Zagler, D. Burger (eds). Computers Helping People With Special Needs, Springer, 2004, pp. 206-213.

Dent. C (2001). Students : Classifications V. Categorization Retrieved June 28, 2006, From http://www.burningchrome.com:8000/- cdent/fiaarts/does/1005018884:23962.html

Roblyer, M. (2003). Integrating Educational Technology Into Teaching, Colombus, Ohio : Persons Education.

Anzel, Betina and A. H. Jucker (1992) Learning Linguistics with Computer.

Individual Differences in CALL by Hartoyo, 2006: 31.

Amstrong, Thomas (2003). Setiap Anak Cerdas : Panduan Membantu Anak Belajar.

Peter, Scrimshaw (1993). Language, Classroom, and Computer, London, British.

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